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Ukraine Healthcare

According to the WHO, per capita total expenditure on health in 2003 was $305; of which per capita government spending was $201, at the international dollar rate.

The precipitous economic decline since 1991 has significantly lowered living standards in Ukraine and adversely affected health. Although high soil fertility enables most Ukrainians to enjoy a sufficient diet, nutrition levels remain lower than optimum and high alcohol and tobacco consumption does little to improve matters. Moreover, lacking adequate funds, many health facilities have closed or reduced their level of service since independence. Although the number of doctors is well above the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) average, they lack the training, facilities and medicines to provide adequate preventative or primary healthcare. One result of this has been outbreaks of tuberculosis, which reached epidemic levels in the late 1990s.

The country has established 156 independent children's hospitals. As of the mid-1990s, there were over 400 pediatric departments functioning in central district hospitals, with 92,102 pediatric beds (84 per 10,000 children). There were 22,000 pediatricians (two per 1,000 children) in 1993. In the same year, there were 29 regional adult hospitals; 25 regional infant hospitals; 485 central district hospitals; 1,500 rural hospitals; and specialised dispensaries and clinics. Altogether there were a total of 700,000 hospital beds.

In addition, there were 6,500 outpatient polyclinical institutions. Medical personnel in the mid-1990s included 220,000 physicians and more than 500,000 physician's assistants. As of 1999, there were an estimated 3 physicians and 11.8 hospital beds per 1,000 people.

Infant mortality was reported at 21 per 1,000 live births in 2000. There were 477,366 births in 1999; life expectancy was 68 years in 2000. As of 2002, the crude birth rate and overall mortality rate were estimated at, respectively, 10 and 16 per 1,000 people. Immunisation rates for 1997 for children up to one year old were: tuberculosis, 95%; diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 96%; polio, 97%; and measles, 97%.





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